Document Type

Working Paper

Publication Date



Blockchain, Health, Data, Healthcare, Insurance Companies, Sweden, Estonia, Infrastructure


Blockchain has been hailed as the most disruptive technology of the next decade. One of the areas of immediate application is healthcare, where different types of blockchain applications could help streamline data sharing, protect patient privacy, and assist in the monitoring of drug shipments. This Article explores the first steps taken by healthcare companies in the United States to incorporate blockchain solutions into their business models. It then contrasts them to ongoing experiments in the European Union, with a focus on Sweden’s adoption of CareChain (a national, interoperable blockchain health data platform) and Estonia’s digitization of 95% of the country’s health data.