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Galifianakis: "First question. In 2013, you pardoned a turkey. What do you have planned for 2014?"

Obama: "We'll probably pardon another turkey". 1

First, let me express my gratitude to the incisive comments of Zach Hoskins and Cara Drinan. I have long been a fan of Hoskins' s work, and his forthcoming book on the collateral consequences of punishment promises to be pathbreaking.2 The influence of Drinan's scholarship on the pardoning power3 is evident in my original essay4 and her newer work on the Graham case has again inspired me in new directions in my research.5 Their comments on my essay are important in their own right, and importantly for me, they have helped to clarify my own thinking. In my briefreply, I begin by restating the main points of the article.6 I then try to expand on them, building off points made in both responses.