This article discusses the division of labor between the judge and the jury in rendering judgment, and the separation of law and fact historically and currently, focusing on Spain and Russia. Both Russia and Spain rejected the Anglo-American general verdict of “guilty” or “not-guilty” in favor of a list of questions or propositions presented to the jury during their criminal procedure reforms of the 1990’s. This article also delves into the jury deliberation, verdict, and judgment process of the two countries.
Thaman, Stephen C., The Separation of Questions of Law and Fact in the New Russian and Spanish Jury Verdicts (2000). The Judicial Role in Criminal Proceedings, Sean Doran & John D. Jackson, eds., pp. 51-63, 2000.